Models, Methods, and Artifacts

According to PMI, a model is "a way of thinking to explain a process, framework, or phenomenon", a method is "the means for achieving an outcome, output, result, or project deliverable", and an artifact is a template, document, output, or project deliverable. 

As we see from the tailoring processes, a project manager is completely limitless to tailor the processes and use whatever model, method, or artifact according to the needs of the project. However, PMBOK 7 gives provides them options to make the selection process easier by providing a brief introduction of models, methods, and artifacts.

A method, model, or artifact used in a project,
  • should provide value that is worth the effort,
  • should be useful,
  • should serve the needs of the project team instead of individual
Commonly used models are;
    • Situational Leadership® II
    • Oscar Model
    • Communication models
    • Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Effectiveness of Communication Channels
    • Gulf of Execution and Evaluation
  • MOTIVATION MODELS
    • Hygiene and Motivational Factors
    • Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
    • Theory of Needs
    • Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z
  • CHANGE MODELS
    • Managing Change in Organizations
    • ADKAR® Model
    • The 8-Step Process for Leading Change
    • Virginia Satir Change Model
    • Transition Model
  • COMPLEXITY MODELS
    • Cynefin Framework
    • Stacey Matrix
  • PROJECT TEAM DEVELOPMENT MODELS
    • Tuckman Ladder
    • Drexler/Sibbet Team Performance Model
    • Other Models
    • Conflict Model
    • Negotiation
    • Planning
    • Process Groups
    • Salience Model
Commonly used methods are;
  • DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
    • Alternatives Analysis
    • Assumption and Constraint Analysis
    • Benchmarking
    • Business Justification Analysis Methods
    • Check Sheets
    • Cost of Quality
    • Decision Tree Analysis
    • Earned Value Analysis
    • Expected Monetary Value
    • Forecast
    • Influence Diagram
    • Lifecycle Assessment
    • Make or Buy Analysis
    • Probability and Impact Matrix
    • Process Analysis
    • Regression Analysis
    • Reserve Analysis
    • Root Cause Analysis
    • Sensitivity Analysis
    • Simulations
    • Stakeholder Analysis
    • SWOT Analysis
    • Trend Analysis
    • Value Stream Mapping
    • Variance Analysis
    • What - If Scenario Analysis
  • ESTIMATING METHODS
    • Affinity grouping.
    • Analogous estimating
    • Function point.
    • Multipoint estimating.
    • Parametric estimating.
    • Relative estimating.
    • Single-point estimating.
    • Story point estimating.
    • Wideband Delphi
  • MEETINGS AND EVENTS
    • Backlog refinement. 
    • Bidder conference. 
    • Change control board. 
    • Daily standup. 
    • Iteration planning. 
    • Iteration review. 
    • Kickoff.
    • Lessons learned meeting
    • Planning meeting
    • Project closeout
    • Project review
    • Release planning
    • Retrospective
    • Risk review 
    • Status meeting 
    • Steering committee
  • OTHER METHODS
    • Impact mapping
    • Modeling
    • Net Promoter Score (NPS®)
    • Prioritization schema
    • Timebox
Commonly used artifacts are;
  • STRATEGY ARTIFACTS
    • Business case
    • Business model canvas
    • Project brief
    • Project charter
    • Project vision statement
    • Roadmap
  • LOGS AND REGISTERS
    • Assumption log
    • Backlog 
    • Change log
    • Issue log
    • Lessons learned register
    • Risk-adjusted backlog
    • Risk register
    • Stakeholder register
  • HIERARCHY CHARTS
    • Organizational breakdown structure
    • Product breakdown structure
    • Resource breakdown structure
    • Risk breakdown structure
    • Work breakdown structure
  • BASELINES
    • Budget
    • Milestone schedule
    • Performance measurement baseline
    • Project schedule
    • Scope baseline
  • VISUAL DATA AND INFORMATION
    • Affinity diagram
    • Burndown/burnup chart
    • Cause-and-effect diagram
    • Cumulative flow diagram (CFD)
    • Cycle time chart
    • Dashboards
    • Flowchart
    • Gantt chart
    • Histogram
    • Information radiator
    • Lead time chart
    • Prioritization matrix
    • Project schedule network diagram
    • Requirements traceability matrix
    • Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
    • Scatter diagram
    • S-curve
    • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix
    • Story map
    • Throughput chart
    • Use case
    • Value stream map
    • Velocity chart
  • REPORTS
    • Quality Report
    • Risk Report
    • Status Reports
  • AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS
    • Fixed-price contracts
    • Cost-reimbursable contracts
    • Time and materials (T&M)
    • Indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ)
    • Other agreements
  • OTHER ARTIFACTS
    • Activity list
    • Bid documents
    • Metrics
    • Project calendar
    • Requirements documentation
    • Project team charter
    • User story