Models, Methods, and Artifacts

According to PMI, a model is "a way of thinking to explain a process, framework, or phenomenon", a method is "the means for achieving an outcome, output, result, or project deliverable", and an artifact is a template, document, output, or project deliverable. 

As we see from the tailoring processes, a project manager is completely limitless to tailor the processes and use whatever model, method, or artifact according to the needs of the project. However,  there are options to make the selection process easier by providing a brief introduction of models, methods, and artifacts.

A method, model, or artifact used in a project,
  • should provide value that is worth the effort,
  • should be useful,
  • should serve the needs of the project team instead of individual
Commonly used models are;
    • Situational Leadership® II
    • Oscar Model
    • Communication models
    • Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Effectiveness of Communication Channels
    • Gulf of Execution and Evaluation
  • MOTIVATION MODELS
    • Hygiene and Motivational Factors
    • Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
    • Theory of Needs
    • Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z
  • CHANGE MODELS
    • Managing Change in Organizations
    • ADKAR® Model
    • The 8-Step Process for Leading Change
    • Virginia Satir Change Model
    • Transition Model
  • COMPLEXITY MODELS
    • Cynefin Framework
    • Stacey Matrix
  • PROJECT TEAM DEVELOPMENT MODELS
    • Tuckman Ladder
    • Drexler/Sibbet Team Performance Model
    • Other Models
    • Conflict Model
    • Negotiation
    • Planning
    • Process Groups
    • Salience Model
Commonly used methods are;
  • DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS METHODS
    • Alternatives Analysis
    • Assumption and Constraint Analysis
    • Benchmarking
    • Business Justification Analysis Methods
    • Check Sheets
    • Cost of Quality
    • Decision Tree Analysis
    • Earned Value Analysis
    • Expected Monetar
    • y Value
    • Forecast
    • Influence Diagram
    • Lifecycle Assessment
    • Make or Buy Analysis
    • Probability and Impact Matrix
    • Process Analysis
    • Regression Analysis
    • Reserve Analysis
    • Root Cause Analysis
    • Sensitivity Analysis
    • Simulations
    • Stakeholder Analysis
    • SWOT Analysis
    • Trend Analysis
    • Value Stream Mapping
    • Variance Analysis
    • What - If Scenario Analysis
  • ESTIMATING METHODS
    • Affinity grouping.
    • Analogous estimating.
    • Function point.
    • Multipoint estimating.
    • Parametric estimating.
    • Relative estimating.
    • Single-point estimating.
    • Story point estimating.
    • Wideband Delphi
  • MEETINGS AND EVENTS
    • Backlog refinement. 
    • Bidder conference. 
    • Change control board. 
    • Daily standup. 
    • Iteration planning. 
    • Iteration review. 
    • Kickoff.
    • Lessons learned meeting
    • Planning meeting
    • Project closeout
    • Project review
    • Release planning
    • Retrospective
    • Risk review 
    • Status meeting 
    • Steering committee
  • OTHER METHODS
    • Impact mapping
    • Modeling
    • Net Promoter Score (NPS®)
    • Prioritization schema
    • Timebox
Commonly used artifacts are;
  • STRATEGY ARTIFACTS
  • LOGS AND REGISTERS
  • HIERARCHY CHARTS
    • Affinity diagram
    • Burn charts
    • Cause-and-effect diagram
    • Cumulative flow diagram (CFD)
    • Cycle time chart
    • Dashboards
    • Flowchart
    • Gantt chart
    • Histogram
    • Information radiator
    • Lead time chart
    • Prioritization matrix
    • Project schedule network diagram
    • Requirements traceability matrix
    • Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
    • Scatter diagram
    • S-curve
    • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix
    • Story map
    • Throughput chart
    • Use case
    • Value stream map
    • Velocity chart
  • REPORTS
  • AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS
    • Fixed-price contracts
    • Cost-reimbursable contracts
    • Time and materials (T&M)
    • Indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ)
    • Other agreements
  • OTHER ARTIFACTS
    • Activity list
    • Bid documents
    • Metrics
    • Project calendar
    • Requirements documentation
    • Project team charter
    • User story