Cause and Effect Diagram

Cause and effect diagram is a data representation technique that reveals the potential causes of risks identified throughout the project or errors that may occur when creating deliveries. It is described as one of the 7 basic tools used in quality management. 

In PMBOK 7, cause and effect diagrams are categorized as visual data and information artifacts and they are recommended to be used as part of; 

Cause and effect diagrams are typically created by looking back when an unwanted thing occurred and asking a number of questions. These questions are often questions about how or why the error occurred and will lead us to the root cause as we reach the bottom. Cause and effect diagrams also help us categorize these causes by showing us the root causes of the problem encountered. In this way, the causes that lead to the error of the process can be grouped under certain headings.

Cause and effect analysis can be performed individually, as well as by a group of experts in the field. Research of root causes by more than one person in most areas benefits both in terms of perspective, and diversity. 

As part of the uncertainty performance domain, it can be used to deal with the uncertainty and ambiguity in the project. In the delivery performance domain and project work performance domain, they are used to evaluate quality-related errors.

Cause and effect analysis should always begin with identifying the problem and gathering information about the problem. After a consensus is reached on what the problem is, the idea is executed on what are the main categories that are the source of the problem. Although this stage is relatively easy, in some cases it can be challenging. In general, you can get an idea of the common reasons for which problems are caused by topics, and make your work easier. 

After the categories are defined, for each category, the "why?" question is asked and the received answer is added to the graph as a sub-branch. This process continues until a remarkable answer to the question of why cannot be obtained. Once the chart is complete, you will have a very useful cause-effect representation that goes down to the root causes and shows them effectively.

See also;

Root Cause Analysis